By Beverley Collins, Inger M. Mees
Assuming no previous wisdom, books within the sequence provide an available review of the topic, with actions, examine questions, pattern analyses, commentaries and key readings – all within the comparable quantity.
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Extra resources for Practical Phonetics and Phonology: A Resource Book for Students (3rd Edition)
See p. 24 n’t /nt/ See CFs Verb be Pronouns & possessive Negative particle Not before vowels Only before vowels /qi/ before vowels /fer/ before vowels /e/ is often used before the /tu/ used before vowels /m/. See Contracted Forms (CFs) /er/ before vowels. See CFs See CFs CFs CFs CFs CFs /ai/ is also used in stressed contexts The use of weak/strong/contracted forms Remember that WFs and CFs are far more frequent than SFs. html. 2 Contracted forms Full form Written CF Spoken CF I am you are he is she is it is we are they are I’m you’re he’s she’s it’s we’re they’re /axm/ /jci/ /hiz/ /tiz/ /xts/ /wxe/ /q™i/ /wxer/ before vowels /q™ir/ before vowels have I have you have he has she has it has we have they have I’ve you’ve he’s she’s it’s we’ve they’ve /axv/ /juv/ /hiz/ 5 /tiz/ 6 /xts/ 7 /wiv/ /qexv/ Not necessarily used if have is a main verb Cannot be used with third person forms if has is a main verb, see p.
Well, then,’ the cat went on, ‘you see a dog growls when it’s angry, and wags its tail when it’s pleased. Now I growl when I’m pleased, and wag my tail when I’m angry. ’ ‘I call it purring, not growling,’ said Alice. ‘Call it what you like,’ said the cat. Phonemic transcription of the same passage Track 5 Bhak dnu1 Bnek axm Bmæd | sed Bælxs || ju Bmws2 bi | sed qe Bkæt | ci ju Bwkd5t ev Bkwm hxe || Bælxs Bdxd5t 0xfk qæt Bpruivd xt e Btcil3 || hakBeve | ti went Bbn | en Bhak dnu1 Bnek qet Bjci Bmæd || te beBgxn wxq | sed qe Bkæt | e Bdbgz nbt Bmæd || ju Bgraint Bqæt || 26 INTRODUCTION ax seBpekz Bsek | sed Bælxs || Bwel qen | qe Bkæt went Bbn | ju Bsii | e Bdbg Bgraklz wen xts Bæfgri | en Bwægz xts Btexl wen xts Bpliizd || nak ax Bgrakl wen axm Bpliizd | en Bwæg max Btexl wen axm Bæfgri || Bq™ifci r 4 axm Bmæd || Bax kcil xt Bp$irxf | nbt Bgraklxf | sed Bælxs || Bkcil xt wbttu1 Blaxk | sed qe Bkæt || Notes 1 2 3 4 See Section B5, ‘Patterns of Assimilation in English’, for information on assimilations.
The vocal folds temporarily close off the entrance to the trachea so protecting the lungs from inhaling small food particles. If this mechanism fails, as it sometimes does, we end up choking and spluttering, complaining that the food has ‘gone the wrong way’. Food normally goes down the oesophagus /iiBsbfeges/, the pipe leading to the stomach, being diverted away from the larynx by the epiglottis. Activity 32 INTRODUCTION We can view the workings of the larynx in the old-fashioned way without too much difficulty by means of a laryngoscope /leBrxfgeskekp/, which is a smart word for an angled rod with a mirror on the end (like the mirror a dentist uses to look at your teeth).